Menstrual Disorders: What Are The Treatments Of Abnormal Menstruation?
Abnormal menstruation is not an uncommon phenomenon and it causes many negative effects on the health and life of women. Therefore, it is essential to get a deep understanding of it and its treatment to avoid this problem.
What are menstrual disorders?
Heavy bleeding, missing periods, and uncontrollable mood swings are examples of menstrual disorders, which are physical and/or emotional symptoms that occur right before and during menstruation.
Types of menstrual disorders
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
PMS is defined as any unpleasant or uncomfortable symptom that occurs with your period and disrupts your regular functioning for a short period. These symptoms can last from a few hours to several days, and the types and severity of symptoms vary from person to person.
During their reproductive years, almost 85 percent of women have at least one typical symptom related to PMS, according to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. About 30 to 40% of women have symptoms that are severe enough to cause them to change their lives. PMS symptoms are more intense and disruptive than the moderate premenstrual symptoms seen by up to 75% of all women.
PMS symptoms might include any or all of the following:
- swollen, painful breasts
- anxiety or confusion
- mood swings and tension
- inability to concentrate
- Skin problems
- Heart palpitations
- Eye infections
- Decreased coordination
- Diminished libido (sex drive)
- Hot flashes
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)
PMDD is a significantly more severe version of PMS that affects between 3% to 8% of women of reproductive age. It is a condition that needs medical attention. An estimated 5% of people suffer from symptoms that are so severe that they are unable to function. The most common symptoms of PMDD are heightened irritability, anxiety, and mood swings
The absence of menstrual periods for more than three monthly menstrual cycles is known as amenorrhea. Amenorrhea affects young women who haven’t begun menstruation by the age of 15 or 16, or within three years of their breasts developing. These are two types of amenorrhea:
- Primary amenorrhea: occurs if you’ve reached the age of 16 and haven’t had your period. It’s generally the result of an issue with your endocrine system, a low body weight caused by eating disorders, extreme activity, or drugs. This medical disease can be caused by a variety of factors, including a problem with your ovaries, a problem with your hypothalamus (a part of your brain), or genetic problems. The most frequent cause is delayed pituitary gland maturation.
- Secondary amenorrhea is when regular periods suddenly stop for three months or longer. Stress, weight loss, exercise, or sickness impact estrogen levels, leading to this kind of amenorrhea.
Dysmenorrhea (Severe menstrual cramps)
Menstrual cramps affect the majority of women at some time throughout their life, either before or during their period. It’s a regular component of some people’s monthly regimen. However, if your cramps are particularly painful and prolonged, this is known as dysmenorrhea, and you should seek medical advice.
Women with primary dysmenorrhea have abnormal uterine contractions as a result of a chemical imbalance in their bodies. Medical diseases, such as endometriosis, can induce secondary dysmenorrhea. Other potential reasons include pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), uterine fibroids, abnormal pregnancy (i.e., miscarriage, ectopic), infection, tumors, or polyps in the pelvic cavity.
The most frequent kind of abnormal uterine bleeding is menorrhagia, which is characterized by heavy and prolonged menstrual bleeding. Bleeding can be so severe in certain circumstances that everyday activities are disrupted. Heavy menstrual bleeding is normal at several phases of life, including when you first start menstruating in your teen years and as you approach menopause in your late 40s or early 50s.
Treatments for abnormal menstruation
Before a woman’s period, limiting consumption of salt, caffeine, sugar, and alcohol is a way to alleviate cramping and other symptoms. Additionally, eating iron-rich foods such as clams, oysters, organ meats, beef, pork, poultry, and fish can help prevent anemia.
Calcium supplementation may help alleviate certain menstrual period problems. It may be found in low-fat dairy products, soy products, dark greens like turnip greens, and calcium-fortified orange juice, among other things.
Exercise may aid in the reduction of menstruation discomfort.
Menstrual cramps can be relieved by applying a heating pad to the abdomen area or bathing in a hot bath.
Hygiene During Menstruation
Tampons should be changed every 4 to 6 hours. Female deodorants can irritate the vaginal region, so avoid scented pads and tampons. Douching is not advised since it might kill the natural bacteria found in the vaginal area. Bathing regularly is enough.
Common Cramps Pain Relievers
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are medications that are used to block prostaglandins, which promote uterine contractions. They are pain relievers that also assist to decrease the inflammatory elements that might cause excessive menstrual flow.
Acetaminophen (Tylenol) is a viable option for NSAIDs, particularly for women who have stomach issues or ulcers. To relieve bloating, several medications (Pamprin, Premsyn) mix acetaminophen with additional drugs, such as a diuretic.
Women with menstrual abnormalities such as menorrhagia (heavy bleeding), dysmenorrhea (severe pain), and amenorrhea frequently take OCs to control their periods (absence of periods). They also help to prevent malignancies of the ovary and endometrium.
Women who have irregular or missing periods take progestins (synthetic progesterone) to get their periods back on track. They may help protect against uterine and ovarian malignancies, as well as reduce excessive bleeding and menstrual discomfort. For women who are not candidates for estrogen-containing OCs, such as smokers over the age of 35, progestin-only contraceptives may be a suitable choice.
Non-Hormonal Drugs (Lysteda)
Tranexamic acid (Lysteda) is a newer medicine for excessive menstrual bleeding that is also the first non-hormonal treatment for menorrhagia. Tranexamic acid comes in the form of a tablet. It is an anti-fibrinolytic medication that aids in the clotting of blood. The FDA advises that women who use hormonal contraceptives may increase their risk of blood clots, strokes, and heart attacks if they use this medicine. Women with a history of venous thromboembolism should avoid using this medication.
Women who suffer from significant monthly bleeding, unpleasant cramps, or both have surgical alternatives. The majority of operations, on the other hand, remove or considerably reduce the potential of childbearing. Endometrial ablation eliminates the uterine lining whereas hysterectomy removes the whole uterus. Before having any surgical treatments, women should be sure to consult their doctors about all of their medical alternatives.