Sport Injuries: Causes, Types, Treatment and Prevention
What are sport injuries?
Sports injuries are physical injuries sustained while participating in any sport or exercise activity. If they are not properly treated, acute injuries can become chronic and even lead to unpredictable complications that are difficult to treat later.
Causes of sport injuries
The main causes of sports injuries include:
- Poor training techniques
- Structural abnormalities
- Weak muscles
- Tendons and ligaments
- Harmful exercise conditions
Common types of sport injuries
Strains are the most common type of sports injury, owing to the fact that we use so many muscles and tendons when we exercise or play. These moving parts are all prone to stretching further than they should or moving in ways they should not, resulting in tears, damage, and pain. Pulled hamstrings, groin strains, and strained quads are all examples of common muscle strains. The majority of strains are minor and heal on their own with rest. Warming up and stretching before engaging in the strenuous activity is the best way to reduce the risk of strained muscles and tendons.
The knee is a complicated joint that serves as a hinge between the thigh and the lower leg. It is made up of bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons. Jumper’s knee and runner’s knee can both cause knee pain. Meniscus tears and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are two other common injuries.
Sprains are ligaments’ equivalent of muscle strains. Ligaments are the connective tissues that connect bones. When these ligaments twist in the wrong direction, they can pull or tear. Ankle sprains are the most common type of sprain among athletes, followed by knee sprains, wrist and elbow sprains, and so on. Sprains are more painful than strains, take longer to heal, and may necessitate immobilization to prevent further injury. Sprains frequently leave the ligament weak and vulnerable to future sprains, so if you have a history of spraining a knee or ankle, for example, it is a good idea to wear a brace while playing.
A break, typically in a bone, is called a fracture. An open or complicated fracture occurs when the shattered bone pierces the skin. Fractures can result from slips, trips, or sports injuries. Low bone density and osteoporosis, which weaken the bones, are further factors. Stress fractures, which are extremely minute fissures in the bone, can be brought on by overuse.
A dislocated joint is one in which the two bones that make up a joint become separated from one another. The majority of dislocations occur during contact sports like football and basketball, as well as high-impact activities, activities involving extensive stretching, and activities involving falling. While immediate medical attention is normally required for a dislocated joint, the bones can occasionally realign on their own. A dislocation is a painful injury that most frequently affects the kneecap, femur-tibia, shoulders, elbows, and fingers.
Injured rotator cuff
The rotator cuff is made up of four separate muscles. Your shoulder may move in any direction thanks to the rotator cuff. The rotator cuff might become less strong if one of these muscles tears.
With practically every sport, your back and spinal column experience some amount of stress. This tension may build up over time into inflammation around the vertebrae and back muscles, occasionally inflicting disc damage and commonly resulting in upper or lower back discomfort. Occasionally, a quick, jarring hit can also seriously hurt the back. Depending on the problem, back treatments might range considerably from rest to physical therapy to surgery. The greatest method to lower your chance of back discomfort and injury is to maintain strong, flexible back muscles with frequent low-impact exercise, warm-ups, and even a healthy diet.
Treatments for sport injuries
Minor injuries, such as little sprains and strains, can frequently be treated for the first two or three days at home with PRICE treatment.
First, we need to protect the injured region from additional harm, for instance by employing support. Then, rest slows bleeding from fresh wounds. By tightening the blood vessels, ice decreases inflammation and alleviates pain. To better fit your shape, the ice has to be smashed. It ought to be put in a bag that is positioned over the damage. Finally, compression and elevation help to reduce edema and fluid buildup around the damaged region.
Physiotherapy may be helpful for certain patients who are recovering from a chronic injury.
It’s a specialized procedure where massage, manipulation, and exercises are utilized to increase the range of motion, fortify the muscles around the affected location, and restore normal function.
A physiotherapist can create an exercise regimen to strengthen the injured body part and lower the likelihood of recurrent injuries.
Musculoskeletal sports injuries frequently respond well to immediate immobilization, which can be administered quickly by a paramedic or athletic trainer. Immobilization prevents further movement in the region and improves blood flow to the wound (or the site of surgical repair to an injury). Immobilization speeds up the healing process by reducing discomfort, inflammation, and muscular spasms. Most people simply require temporary immobility.
It can aid in reducing the pain brought on by your injury, yet for some people, the pain reduction may be slight or only for a short while.
You can repeat a corticosteroid injection if required, but typically you can only have two or three shots a year.
Skin thinning, fat loss and infection are examples of possible side effects. Your medical professional will be able to go into greater information about any potential side effects.
Preventing sport injuries
These are some suggestions for you to reduce the risk of getting sport injuries:
- Warm up properly and stretch: This is the best way to prevent sport injuries. Cold muscles are more prone to tearing and overstretching. Muscles that are warm are more flexible. Injury is less likely since they can absorb fast motions, bends, and jerks.
- Learn the correct movement patterns for your sport or hobby. Different stances and postures are needed for various sorts of exercise.
- employing the appropriate equipment, such as wearing running shoes for running, football shin protectors, and a rugby gum shield.
- After your activities, don’t forget to cool off. Typically, this entails performing the same stretches and workouts that make up a warmup.